Course Requirements

BIO 101: General Biology I

Introduction to cell anatomy and organismal biology. The five kingdoms of life are surveyed, emphasizing distinguishing features and lifestyles. In-depth study of major organ systems of multicellular animals. Emphasis on principles underlying living organisms, problems they face and solutions that have evolved. Designed as first of two semesters of a general survey. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

BIO 102: General Biology II

Introduction to biochemistry, molecular cell biology and cell energetics. Genetics covered in relation to molecular mechanisms, population biology and evolutionary theory. Survey of botany, including anatomy and physiology of plants. Introduction to ecological principles, including ecosystem organization; interaction of biotic and abiotic factors; and the biosphere. Prerequisite: 101. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

CHM 101, 102: General Chemistry I, II

The first semester of a two-semester sequence intended for students majoring in the sciences. The course focuses on the study of atomic structure, nomenclature, stoichiometry, energy, bonding and coordination chemistry. The laboratory work reinforces lecture topics. Prerequisite: concurrent enrollment in MAT 103 or placement above MAT 103. High school chemistry or an introductory chemistry course is strongly recommended. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

The continuation of General Chemistry I with emphasis on solutions, kinetics, equilibrium, acid-base chemistry, thermodynamics and electrochemistry. The laboratory work reinforces lecture topics and includes qualitative analysis. Prerequisites: CHM 101 and MAT 103. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL


CHM 103: Fundamentals of General Chemistry

This course is designed to meet a one-semester general chemistry requirement. An overview of the following topics is provided: atomic structure and bonding, stoichiometry, energy and acid-base chemistry, redox chemistry, equilibrium kinetics and hydrocarbons. Laboratory work reinforces lecture topics. Prerequisite: MAT 098/100 or equivalent. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

CHM 201, 202: Organic Chemistry I, II

The first course of a two-semester sequence that introduces structure, bonding and reactivity of organic (carbon-based) compounds. The lecture focuses on properties and reactivity of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, with an emphasis on reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry. The laboratory introduces basic purification and synthetic techniques, and analytical methods including polarimetry, IR and NMR spectroscopy. Prerequisite: 102. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

A continuation of CHM 201 with an added emphasis on molecules with biological importance. The lectures include a discussion of carboxylic acids and their derivatives, enolates, aromatics, amines, lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids. The laboratory work includes more advanced synthetic methods and an independent research project. Prerequisite: 201. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory. NSL


CHM 104: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry

This course is designed to meet a one-semester requirement in organic chemistry of biological systems. An overview of nomenclature, functional groups and reactions is provided, with an emphasis on structure and reactions in biological systems including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and enzymes. Prerequisite: 103. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

MAT 130: Calculus and Analytic Geometry I

Review of functions and introduction to the concepts of limits, differentiation and integration. Use of the derivative and analytic geometry for sophisticated graphing of functions and relations. Application of the derivative and definite integral to the study of problem-solving techniques in the physical sciences. Prerequisite: 110 or Mathematics Placement Exam results. NS

MAT 140: Calculus and Analytic Geometry II

Continuation of the study of the derivative and definite integral for problem-solving, involving more challenging functions. Topics include techniques of integration, improper integrals, numerical approximation techniques, conics, sequences and series, and polar coordinates. Prerequisite: 130. NS

BIO 398: Design and Methods of Scientific Research

Students learn to explore primary scientific literature, develop a research project and, depending upon student and faculty interest, learn advanced laboratory skills. The course will result in a research proposal. .5 credits. Prerequisite: at least four courses at or above the 200 level in biology.

BIO 400, 402: Senior Research Seminar I, II

The second course in the three-semester research sequence for Biology and Chemistry majors, with focus on research and oral presentations. Seminar based on original research and/or recent scientific literature following the proposal developed in 39 8. Seminar presentations and a draft research paper are required. Specific research topics selected based on interests and background of faculty and students. One course credit. Prerequisite: BIO 398.

The third course in the three-semester sequence for Biology and Chemistry majors with the focus on the analysis of research results, research paper and a poster presentation. .5 course credits. Completion of this course will fulfill one writing-intensive credit. Prerequisite: BIO 400. WI


EDU 326: Student Teaching - Secondary

A 14-week clinical experience in local schools for majors in the College for Women and the Adult Learning Programs who pursue instructional certification for elementary education or a specific discipline at the secondary level. Student observes school calendar, not college calendar. Supplemented with the appropriate practicum seminar. Prerequisites: all professional coursework; adviser approval. (Three course credits).

Six course credits at the 200 or 300 level, of which at least two will be at the 300 level.

The student may choose a special emphasis by selecting courses from one of the following groups:


BIO 208: Genetics

Mendelian genetics and principles of heredity; introductory molecular genetics; evolutionary genetics. Prerequisite: 102. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

BIO 210: Introductory Botany

Survey of the plant kingdom, emphasizing classification, evolution, structure and function. Emphasis also on botanical, horticultural and economic aspects of plants used as sources of food, fibers and pharmaceuticals. Prerequisite: 102. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

BIO 211: Microbiology

Morphology, physiology and genetics of microorganisms; emphasis on bacteria and bacteriological techniques. Prerequisites: 102, CHM 201. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

BIO 270, 370: Topics in Biology

A seminar course offered as needed to cover topics of interest to students and faculty that are not treated in the regular curriculum. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

BIO 302

Descriptive and experimental analysis of the development of multicellular organisms. A variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animal systems are chosen as subjects for study. Early embryonic development is emphasized; well-studied systems are chosen from vertebrate embryos for analysis of later organogenesis and cell differentiation. Laboratories include study of invertebrate and vertebrate embryonic development, using both living and preserved specimens. Prerequisite: 102. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

BIO 306: Immunology

A lecture/discussion course for junior/senior-level students interested in the field of immunology. The vertebrate immune system will be explored at the organismic as well as the cellular and molecular levels. Topics will include evolution of host defense mechanisms; structural and functional associations; generation of immune responses; immune effector mechanisms,; and the immune system in health and disease. Interactive sessions will be designed to reinforce current theory. A field trip to an immunology research laboratory will enlighten students about current trends in the field. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: 102 and permission of instructor.

BIO 310: Molecular Cell Biology I

A rigorous, detailed study of cellular structure and function at the molecular level. Topics include general organization of metabolic processes in plants and animals, evolution of cellular organization, synthesis and function of proteins, and selected topics in molecular genetics. Prerequisites: 102 and two upper-level courses in biology or chemistry. NS

BIO 317: Basic Techniques of Electron Microscopy

The study of transmission electron microscopy, including theory; techniques of preparation; and practical experience in producing, developing and interpreting micrographs. Students are expected to perform basic maintenance and alignment of the microscope and carry out an individual research project. Preference to junior and senior biology majors; others by permission. Prerequisites: 102. Two hours lecture; four hours laboratory.

Biochemistry and Physiology

BIO 205: Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates

Major anatomical changes undergone by vertebrates during their evolutionary history, from invertebrate ancestors to present-day forms. Emphasis on morphological adaptations and evolutionary significance of anatomical features, as well as on major paleontological events. Laboratory study of representative types. Prerequisite: 102. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

BIO 207: Vertebrate Physiology

Analysis of the physiological mechanisms of the vertebrate organism, from the cellular to the organismic level. All major organ systems are studied with emphasis on normal functions and their controls. Laboratory study and demonstrations of basic physiological parameters. Prerequisite: 102. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

BIO 209: Nutrition

A detailed study of nutrition and health, with emphasis on metabolic pathways and relationships between nutritional intake and normal and pathological changes in the human organism. Recommended for students interested in the health professions. Prerequisite: 102. NS

BIO 304: Histology

Microscopic structure of principal vertebrate tissues, correlated with their function and interrelations with other tissues. Emphasis on cellular details, ultrastructure and the relationship between tissue structure and function. Prerequisite: 102, 205 advisable. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL

BIO 312: Molecular and Cell Biology II

An exploration of the principles of molecular genetics with emphasis on the control of cellular activities and the molecular structure, function, and regulation of genes. Topics include gene technology, genetic analysis in cell biology, regulation of the cell cycle, cell-to-cell signaling, gene control in development, and cancer. The course is designed as writing intensive and as such, will include substantial writing assignments, including a major scientific research paper (multiple drafts), portfolio and essay exams. Prerequisite: 208.

CHM 310: Biochemistry

Introduction to the major classes of biomolecules: proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. Study of select biochemical processes with a focus on enzyme-controlled reactions. Topics include: amino acid chemistry, protein structure and function, enzymatic mechanisms, kinetics and regulation, membrane structure and function, biochemical basis of transcription and translation, bioenergetics, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Prerequisite: 202. Three hours lecture. NS

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

BIO 206: Invertebrate Zoology

Study of the major groups of invertebrates with consideration of morphology, evolution, physiology and ecology. Prerequisite: 102. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL.

BIO 230: Conservation Biology

Conservation biology is the science of preserving biodiversity and sustaining the earth. It draws upon many disciplines and findings of theoretical biology in an attempt to develop strategies for preserving people, populations, species, biological communities and ecosystems. The course uses case studies to survey the possibilities and problems of applying conservation principles in the real world. Students will identify and find solutions to conservation problems in the local area. Prerequisite: 102 or 110. NSL, ESL

BIO 309: Evolution

A study of the history of life on earth and examination of principles of organic evolution in plants and animals. Current topics in evolutionary theory. Prerequisites: 102, 208, and a quantitative skills course. NS, WI

BIO 314: Ecology

Introduction to the principles of ecology. Study of factors governing distribution and abundance of plants and animals in natural and disturbed ecosystems. Prerequisites: 102, MAT 103. Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory. NSL, ESL, WI

Contact Information

Brad Engle, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Biology
Dept. of Physical and Life Sciences
1015 Philadelphia Avenue
Chambersburg, PA 17201

717-264-4141 x 3170

Department Members:

Laura Altfeld, Ph.D.

M. Dana Harriger, Ph.D.